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Xu Guangqi cemetery

Source:http://www.flychinatravel.com Clicks:Date:2019-11-07 16:27

 

徐光启墓园

 

 

Xuguangqi tomb is located in Guangqi Park, Nandan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai. It was built in 1634 (the seventh year of Chongzhen in the Ming Dynasty) and renovated in 1957. In 1988, it was announced by the State Council as a national key cultural relics protection unit.
 

Xu Guangqi, a scientist in the late Ming Dynasty, made great contributions to mathematics, astronomy, calendar, military affairs, measurement, agriculture and water conservancy, and played an extremely important role in the dissemination and development of modern science in China.
 

According to historical records, Xu Guangqi was born on April 24, 1562, in the then Songjiang Prefecture of Shanghai (now Shanghai city). His academic career was rigorous, and he was also an outstanding person in China who contacted and absorbed western culture earlier.
 

brief introduction
 

Xu Guangqi's tomb is located in Guangqi Park, Nandan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai. Xu Guangqi is a pioneer of Chinese research and introduction of Western science, with outstanding achievements in agriculture and astronomy. In 1633, Chongzhen died in Beijing. The next year, he was buried at the confluence of Li Zongjing, Zhaojiabang and other rivers in the south of Shanghai city. Later, his sons and grandchildren lived here, so he was called Xujiahui.
 

There are tombs of Xu Guangqi and his four grandchildren, and tombstones are set up in front of them. In the east of the cemetery, there is a gallery of Steles, which is engraved with Xu Guangqi's portrait, the biography written by Zha jizuo of the Ming Dynasty and Xu Guangqi's manuscript. In front of the tomb is a granite statue of Xu Guangqi. The former cemetery covers an area of 20 mu and has 10 graves, where Xu Guangqi and his wife Wu's family are buried, with four grandchildren and their spouses. There are stone tablets, stone people, stone horses, Huabiao, stone archways and other things in front of the tomb. In the center of the stone archway, there is a title of "civil and military Yuanxun"; in the right, there is a title of "Yuan Fu of Xi Dynasty", in the left, there is a title of "Wang Zuo Ru Zong". In the center of the stone archway, there is a Title of "Xu wending cemetery que, a scholar of the great scholar of Wen Yuan Ge and Minister of rites of Shaobao and Prince Taibao, a senior official of Ming Dynasty". The stone archway is engraved with couplets. The first couplet is "to govern the land of all generations of agriculture", and the second couplet is "to serve as a minister and to strive for the best.". By the end of the 19th century, most of the original stone sheep, stone horse, Huabiao and archway in front of the tomb had been damaged, leaving only 12000 square meters of the cemetery.
 

In 1903 (the 29th year of Guangxu), in order to commemorate the 300th anniversary of Xu Guangqi's baptism, the Catholic Church rebuilt the archway and built a white marble cross in the tomb path. Later, due to the war, no one managed the cemetery. In the 22nd year of the Republic of China (1933) to commemorate the 300th anniversary of Xu Guangqi's death, iron railings surrounded the cross, terrazzo railings surrounded the tomb area, and cement roads were built. After the Japanese occupation of Shanghai in 1937, the cemetery was abandoned, and the original Shiyang, Shima, Huabiao and archway were damaged, and now they are incomplete. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of culture allocated funds for the renovation of Xu Guangqi's cemetery, reconstruction of the cross platform, and announced as a Shanghai cultural relics protection unit.
 

In 1957, after finishing, there were granite statues of Xu Guangqi in front of the tomb. On the east side, there were stone galleries and 12 stone carvings of Xu Guangqi's portraits, handwriting and biography. During the cultural revolution, the original monuments and cultural relics of Huabiao were damaged. In 1978, the cemetery was turned into Nandan park. In 1981, a large oval tomb was built in the north of the garden. It covers an area of 300 square meters and is 2.2 meters high. The tombstone is engraved with the calligraphy "Tomb of Xu Guangqi in Ming Dynasty" written by the famous mathematician Su Buqing.
 

It was renovated after 1982. In 1983, the 350th anniversary of Xu Guangqi's death was commemorated. A stone gallery was built in the cemetery. A statue of Xu Guangqi was erected in front of the tomb. Zhou Gucheng, a historian and vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, inscribed on it. In front of the tomb, a 150 square meter granite burial platform was built, and a granite statue with half chest and one grade official uniform was built. There are cypresses and evergreen trees on the left and right.
 

On the east side of the tomb, there is a corridor of Xu's handwriting, and some of Leshi's handwriting, such as the original preface of geometry and the preface of Bai Jing Di's testimony. The stone inscription on the back of the gallery is the biography of Xu Guangqi, written by chajizuo, a scholar in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, and the portrait of Xu Guangqi copied by Cheng Shifa, a famous modern painter. There is a stone horse on the west side of the tomb. The tombs are surrounded by cement stone benches and planted with trees. In November, in order to commemorate the 350th anniversary of Xu Guangqi's death, Nandan Park was renamed Guangqi park. In 1988, the State Council of the people's Republic of China announced it as a key cultural relics protection unit in China.
 

Guang Kai Park
 

Guangqi park is located in the southwest of Shanghai, facing south to the north, facing Xuhui District swimming pool in the East, Nandan Road in the south, Huizhan road in the West and Xujiahui Catholic Church in the north. It covers an area of 19 Mu and 13200 square meters. On the 350th anniversary of Xu Guangqi's death on November 8, 1983, with the approval of Shanghai Municipal People's government, it was named after Xu Guangqi, an outstanding scientist of the Ming Dynasty (formerly Nandan Park). The patriotic education places in Guangqi Park mainly include Xu Guangqi's tomb and the memorial hall of "nanchunhuatang". Xu Guangqi's tomb, located in the northeast of the park, was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit by the State Council in 1988. "Nanchunhuatang" is a building of Ming and Qing Dynasties. It moved into the park in 2003, covering an area of 300 square meters. Historical photos, pictures and a brief introduction to Xu Guangqi's life are displayed in the museum. In January 2003, Guangqi Park and Xu Guangqi's tomb were named "Shanghai patriotism education base" by Shanghai Municipal People's government and opened to the public free of charge.


  

Landscape of Mausoleum
 

Oval grave

Located in the north of the park, the tomb is oval, 2.2 meters high, surrounded by granite inlay, with grass on the top. Camphor, cypress, cedar and oleander are planted in front of the tomb, and Metasequoia stands in the back. In front of the tomb stands a five character tombstone written by Su Buqing, "Tomb of Xu Guangqi in Ming Dynasty". There are stone benches on both sides, and a stone horse of Qing Dynasty is preserved on the right side.

About 15 meters in front of the tomb, half body, granite, 1.2 meters high, 1.6 meters high base. The statue was dressed in a Ming Dynasty imperial costume, with crane ornaments on its chest and solemn facial expression.

On the left side of the tomb, the corridor is 12 meters long. In the corridor, there are 5 inscriptions written by Xu Guangqi, such as the original preface of geometry and the preface of the legitimate proof of the flower Scripture. The stone tablet is 0.9m long and 0.3m wide, with 6 pieces of 1216 characters in total. The stone tablet is inlaid in the gallery wall. On the back are the biography of Xu Guangqi written by chajizuo in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty and the portraits of Xu family copied by Cheng Shifa.
 

Stone tablet
 

By the 29th year of Guangxu (1903) in the Qing Dynasty, the original monument had been lost. The stone man, stone horse and Huabiao were all there. Three hundred years after Xu Guangqi's initiation, the Jiangnan Catholic Church rebuilt the graveyard in memory of the "Paul" garrison elder. In addition, a large stone cross was placed in front of the tomb, beside which a monument with Latin inscriptions was inscribed.

At the end of Qing Dynasty, due to the disrepair of the cemetery, it was reduced to 18 mu. In the 22nd year of the Republic of China (1933), in order to commemorate the 300 years of Xu Guangqi's death, an artificial stone railing and a concrete road were built under the iron railing around the cross. During the Anti Japanese War, cemeteries were abandoned and the open space became vegetable beds.
 

Umbrella Pavilion group

There is a winding stream in the west of the park, along which there are five mushroom shaped single column flat top pavilions with reinforced concrete structure. 5 pavilions are different in size, height and staggered overlap.

Lotus Pond

In the south-west of the park, it is oval, with water lilies planted all over the pool, and two red porcelain carp spray water and spit beads in the pool. On the Bank of the pool, there are Yingchun, Huangxin, huangtiao, etc.

Waterside Pavilion

Located in the west of the pool, it looks like two connected hexagonal flat top pavilions with reinforced concrete structure. The first half of the pavilion, like a stone boat, is the best place to see fish and flowers.

Personal profile

Family

Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), a Shanghainese, was born in Zixian, Yuanhu, wending, Catholics, and Baolu. Official to the Ministry of rites minister, the great scholar of wenyuange. He was a famous scientist, astronomer and agricultural scientist in Ming Dynasty.

Born in a humble family in Shanghai, Xu Guangqi 1562 studied in Longhua Temple in Shanghai in his early years. He studied hard and lived a simple life since he was a young scholar, and then went to Guangdong to teach. In 1596, he met western missionaries in Shaozhou, Guangdong Province, and initially learned about Catholic doctrines and western scientific knowledge. Later, he read Matteo Ricci's map of mountains and seas. The next mid-term exam. In the spring of the 28th year, I went to Beijing to take an examination, passed through Nanjing, visited Matteo Ricci, and became interested in western scientific knowledge. In 1603, he listened to the preaching of the Portuguese Jesuit srollowan in Nanjing and read Matteo Ricci's "the truth of heaven". Tower understands "Tianxue" as two parts: the way on the line and the implement under the line. He believed that Buddhism had nothing to do with the saying that "the East has come for thousands of years, but the people of the world have not changed". If we can spread the Catholic doctrine and make everyone good, we can achieve the political goal of "long-term stability and long-term governance". As a result, he accepted "heavenly learning", was baptized into the church, took the Christian name Paul, so after his death, he built his tomb in the southwest of the Catholic Church.

Deeds

In the 32nd year of Wanli (1604), he was selected as a scholar in the Imperial Academy. In addition to his political career, he studied with Matteo Ricci and translated the first six volumes of the original geometry. Thirty five (1607) ding you, who returned home to keep the system. The next year, Guo Jujing, an Italian Jesuit priest, was invited to preach in Shanghai, set up a church at home, and developed Catholics among his relatives, friends and tenants, which was the beginning of the introduction of Catholicism into Shanghai. During the period of keeping the system, the author took the "measuring instrument" as reference to Zhoubi Suanjing and Jiuzhang Suan, and integrated it into "measuring similarities and differences" and "Gougu Yi". Three years later, he returned to Beijing for the Imperial Academy's review, and the worthy imperial Tianjian predicted that the solar eclipse was not allowed, so he cooperated with the missionaries to study astronomical instruments. He advocated the study of Western astronomy in translation. Because the Emperor didn't pay attention to it, he went to bed. Forty years (1612), he studied western water conservancy from the Italian Jesuits In the first year of Chongzhen (1628), he became the Minister of rites. The next year, the sky watch predicted that the eclipse was again inaccurate. With the approval of the emperor, Xu Guangqi presided over the revision of the calendar and the compilation of Chongzhen Almanac. At that time, Huang Taiji led tens of thousands of people to break through the great pass and invade the capital from three sides. Emperor Chongzhen twice called on his ministers to inquire about the general plan. Xu Guangqi proposed the tactics of treating prisoners differently in order to disintegrate the enemy's military heart, establishing a vehicle camp equipped with firearms such as Western guns, defending with war and actively defending. Under the leadership of Xu Guangqi, the Portuguese soldiers led by the missionaries led Da Chong to Zhuozhou to assist in defense. He was an important person in the cultural exchange between China and the West in the late Ming Dynasty.

In his later years, Xu Guangqi was old and ill, but he seized the time to examine and approve the last thirty-seven volumes of the Chongzhen Almanac. In 1633, Xu Guangqi was seriously ill. He also laboriously ordered his grandson to sort out and print all the agricultural administrative books after returning to Shanghai. After Xu Guangqi's death, Emperor Chongzhen stopped the dynasty for three days, and gave a special sacrifice to Xu Guangqi. He was posthumously named "wending" as the prince Shaobao.

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